Heather is a certified permaculture designer and student herbalist. And for more tips on preparing your flowers for winter, check out these guides next: © Ask the Experts, LLC. The seeds won't germinate until spring because they require natural freezing and thawing to soften the seed coat so that the embryo plant can grow. Whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata) – A larval host plant that grows in dry or sandy soils, this whorled milkweed is hardy in USDA zones 4a to 10b. What Are the Different Types of Bird of Paradise Plants? Milkweed plants are known to spread so if you do not have room for more milkweed plants, cut the pods off in the fall when the pods are tan and the seeds are coffee brown. The most serious issue is its aggressive spreading habit. It is important to choose the best milkweed for the garden’s size and location. Some birds are known to use the silky floss of milkweed pods to build their nests. You an include layers of whatever organic matter you can get your hands on; straw, compost, aged manure, leaves, grass clippings, etc. She holds a bachelor of science degree in environmental science from Tufts University, and has traveled and worked in many roles in conservation and environmental advocacy, including creating and managing programs based around resource conservation, organic gardening, food security, and building leadership skills. We occasionally link to goods offered by vendors to help the reader find relevant products. When emerging milkweeds have three to four sets of leaves, thin seedlings to 6 inches apart. Pruning can be done in fall but isn’t really a necessary part of winterizing milkweed plants. I use mine in our microprairie, at the back of the slope, as the ground is moister in that particular location. The plant is seldom bothered by deer. Try sowing in the evening or before a rain. I have collected milkweed seeds in autumn, stored them through winter, then planted them in spring, only to have just a small fraction of them actually germinate. Seeds from some species require cold stratification, so if you let the seeds disperse they will sit dormant in the garden until spring. You can easily crowded young seedlings to extend your milkweed bed. Here is more about what we do. Plant seeds 1/8 inch deep, and keep them moist for three weeks. Autumn is also prime time for transplanting unhappy native milkweed varieties. Milkweed plants are the main food source and habitat for monarch caterpillars, an important and threatened native pollinator – so the more we can spread it around, the better! Cold Stratification Au Natural. Though many milkweed plants need only the help of Mother Nature, this article will cover winter care of milkweed. and top off with a layer of soil that can be easily seeded. For this … You can also plant in spring. While not required, this helps keep the ground from freezing and thawing and disrupting the roots. In fall, look for plentiful silky-haired seeds. And it and can have a naturalizing effect in a butterfly-oriented garden. Thank you for your assistance. Marshland Transplant Aquatic Nursery Berlin, WI. Now I let nature take her course. Old man winter takes care of this for you naturally by providing freezing temps outdoors. Luckily, there isn’t all that much that you need to do – though there are a few tips and tricks that you should follow to ensure the perennial growth of healthy plants with an abundance of blooms. Milkweed is a low maintenance plant that will generally do fine when left to its own devices. If you hold off until early spring, this allows birds and other small animals to use the fluff surrounding the seeds and the fibers from the stalks to build nests. Heather, I am going to mass plant a plot of land on our farm with common milkweed along with bulk pollinator seed.I am starting with a grassy [lot of land. Good question! The best time to plant Milkweed seeds in the Fall when the first frosts start to occur. Thoroughly water both plugs and container plants immediately after planting and continue to provide irrigation as needed during the dry season for the … These can be identified by their characteristic milky white sap, which can be found within the stems and leaves. Why is fall planting easier? The milkweed foliage should be about fried when you transplant at the point in the season, and you can cut the plant back to about a foot…leaves a nice marker for where the plant should emerge next season. Consider planting milkweed varieties that are native to your region for best results. I’ve planted a small patch of milkweed in my garden near other plants, specifically an Althea/Rose of Sharon and Crape Myrtle. These can be identified by their characteristic milky white sap, which can be found within the stems and leaves. If I am able to “lasagna garden” over cardboard or thick newspapers, I plan to create a 2′-3′ layer of composted materials and soil. Can I start milkweed plants indoors this winter from these seeds? In spring, pull back the mulch to give space to the new growth. exposing them to the cold temperatures that they would experience in the wild and that trigger spring germination. All through summer and into fall the plant is covered with flowers. Though it has been bush hogged, there is a thick growth of grass and weeds. Asclepias incarnata (also known as Rose Milkweed) is a native perennial, and the sole host plant of Monarch Butterflies. Another reason I prefer to cut milkweed back in spring is so that any seed pods that formed late in the season have time to mature and disperse. This is an ornamental plant that can grow where many others cannot. With barely any effort required over the winter, you can watch your garden fill up with a huge patch year after year. 1. You can buy milkweed plants at your local garden center or a nursery that sells native plants, but it is also easy to grow milkweed from seed. It’s also a beautiful garden plant that attracts many other pollinators, while not requiring much maintenance. With over 140 different types of milkweed, there are milkweeds that grow well in almost every hardiness zone. Monarchs in particular are only interested in milkweed, and in general milkweed also attracts a variety of predatory insects and pollinators that are helpful to keeping pests in check and the whole garden healthy! Choose plants that have not been treated with pesticides, insecticides or neonicotinoids. First will come the caterpillars, then enchanting glasslike cocoons will hang down from the branches, and finally the garden will be filled with butterflies! To prune, just use a pair of clean pruners to cut each dead stem to the ground. Milkweed plants in winter are valued by birds and small animals who use their natural fibers and seed fluff in their nests. Butterfly Gardens of Wisconsin set to open An Uptick in Monarch Butterflies Returning to The Area Monarch butterfly population rebounding. Even if the cold kills the stems, it may regrow quickly from the roots. Milkweed can be grown from seed or purchased as container plants. More than 100 species of this herbaceous perennial are native to the U.S. and Canada. I’ve learned from experience that milkweed seeds need a cold period, or stratification to germinate. You can then give these seeds out to friends and family. Many wild milkweed plants, often considered weeds, will grow happily wherever they sprout without any “help” from gardeners. I wouldn’t worry too much about milkweed leading to damage for other plants. Milkweed also spreads easily from seed. Grow Above your Hardiness Zone. Collection of 3 plants. 1. Stop deadheading in late summer if you want decorative seed pods on the plants in fall and early winter. Whether you cut back your plants in fall or spring is totally up to you. It is a perfect plant in the native garden or just to colonize a vacant field. If you’d like to start preparing for spring the easy way, plant your perennial milkweed seeds (and plants) in the fall. Will they just prefer the milkweed or do you have any suggestions on containing them? You can pull off the 'fluff' and plant the seeds anytime in the fall for plants next year. Late last fall I noticed there was part of a open pod with some seeds that had not scattered on its own. Most young milkweed plants will need about a foot of space between them to allow for healthy growth. These can be added to the compost pile. Why is this? She is also a fanatical gardener, and enjoys spending as much time covered in dirt as possible! Milkweed Plant Varieties – Growing Different Milkweed Plants, No Flowers On Milkweed – Reasons For Milkweed Not Blooming, Growing Milkweed - Using The Milkweed Plant In The Garden, Symmetry In Landscaping – Learn About Balanced Plant Placement, Mulching With Oyster Shells: How Crushed Oyster Shells Help Plants, Unique Paving Ideas – Creative Ways To Use Pavers In The Garden, What Is Cypress Mulch: Using Cypress Mulch In Gardens, Types Of Zone 6 Olives: What Are The Best Olive Trees For Zone 6, Cold Hardy Evergreen Trees – Growing Evergreen Trees In Zone 6, Night Scented Stock Care: How To Grow Evening Stock Plants, Cut Flower Gardening: Growing Flowers For Others, Pieces Of Garden Wisdom – Gardening Tips For Beginners, Garden Renovation: Giving Life To Neglected Garden Beds, Ordering Plants: Planning The Spring Garden Begins In Winter. Milkweed is an herbaceous perennial, and the Asclepias genus includes more than 100 species native to the US and Canada. Plants, Flowers & Herbs; Plant Basics; How to Cut Back Butterfly Milkweed By Suzanne S. Wiley Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. I anticipated pollinating butterflies but didn’t think about the cocoon/caterpillar stage. You can cut plants back in the fall or wait until the spring. Periodically, you may need to dig up the plants during fall and discard all but selected portions of the roots to keep the plant tamed in the garden. Winter care of milkweed depends on your zone and which milkweed you have. Milkweed may be propagated by green stem cuttings, taken in the spring, dusted with hormone root powder and placed in moist sand or potting soil. A Gardener’s Notes: Making Peace With Boulders, Satin Flower: Darling of the Pacific Coast, Blowin’ in the Manmade Wind: 9 of the Best Leaf Blowers, 9 of the Best Celery Cultivars for Your Garden. Many have adapted to different regions of the country and a wide range of climates and terrains, from deserts and rocky areas to marshes and open prairies. Read on to learn how to care for Asclepias plants during the winter, so they can return robust as ever the following spring. They lay dormant in garden debris and snow through winter, and germinate perfectly in spring with milkweed plants everywhere by midsummer. Milkweed plants survive the winter in cold regions by going dormant. Identification. Milkweed is a necessary food source for adorable monarch caterpillars. In general, very little milkweed winter care is needed. Milkweeds are herbaceous perennials that flower throughout the summer, set seed and then naturally die back in fall, going dormant to sprout anew in spring. If you live in a cold climate or you are growing a species that isn’t quite hardy to your zone, you can add a few inches of wood chips or straw mulch to help protect the root system over the winter. See our TOS for more details. In this way, when should I plant milkweed? Like Save August 28, 2011 at 12:55AM Thank you for reporting this comment. Podcast . Avoid spreading seed balls during the heat of the afternoon. All Midwest milkweeds Milkweed plants are neonicotinoid and pesticide free! They can grow anywhere from 2 to 6 feet in height, so don’t crowd them. I have grown many milkweed plants from seed, like common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), both of which are favorites of monarch caterpillars. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! Milkweeds (Asclepias) get their name from the sticky white sap that oozes from the leaves when they are damaged. Perennial plants, like milkweed, do best when planted in the fall so the seeds experience a period of cold. Shelly Wacker If you’ve ever seen milkweed in action in the fall, it’s easy to understand. Share your thoughts in the comments below! Hello, there is a milkweed plant that grows by the back fence on our property. Choose an area where you want to grow your Milkweed plants. There are no serious disease or pest problems with common milkweed. Zone 7, NC, Hi Ann, It sounds like your plan to cover with tarps and then “lasagna” garden over newspaper or cardboard is a good one. So planting your milkweed seed in fall not only mimics how … If you grow non-native milkweed varieties, you can buy new seeds/plants annually or you can overwinter in containers. In spring, your milkweed plants will likely arrive in a dormant state , with no green leaves above the … In time, this deer resistant plants will spread and naturalize to help your pollinator garden grow! Most milkweed requires a cold stratification process which helps your seeds to germinate. That being said, planting it at the bottom of slopes or low spots will yield healthier plants. Plant milkweed away from areas where small children or pets spend time as the leaves are toxic if eaten. Then, all year long, you can enjoy the Seasons of Milkweed! Fall Planting - Fall is the best time for planting milkweed seeds. Dec 23, 2017 - Explore Sharon Holmbeck's board "Milkweed", followed by 243 people on Pinterest. Milkweed POM-POM PARADISE – THE SEASONS OF MILKWEED FALL & WINTER You can make a difference – Kids and adults can replant this fragrant flower in your own gardens. Make sure it has proper sunlight and is in a slightly protected area. How to Overwinter Bird of Paradise Plants. What are your tips for overwintering milkweed? That said, certain garden varieties of milkweed, such as butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa), will benefit from extra mulching through winter in cold climates. Tropical milkweed, unlike our native milkweeds that die back in late fall, will continue to grow through the winter unless killed by a hard freeze. Milkweed also spreads easily from seed. Although you can plant Milkweed in the spring after cold stratification and starting seeds indoors, fall is the easier — and more natural — time to plant. See more ideas about milkweed, plants, milkweed pods. Since milkweed requires a period of cold stratification, it is best to either seed in late fall… Read more ». When the towering stalks pop up each summer, I get to watch my garden turn into a monarch butterfly paradise! Milkweed transplants tend to do best when planted in the fall before the milkweed goes dormant (e.g., October). This North American native blooms summer through fall and provides food for caterpillars as well as … Milkweed is a central feature in my garden, and I want to make sure it has everything it needs to come back in the spring. Some of these links may be affiliate in nature, meaning we earn small commissions if items are purchased. In summer, spent milkweed flowers can be deadheaded to prolong the blooming period. How to Grow Milkweed Plant. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Whenever you choose to prune, just make sure to wait until the seed pods have matured and dispersed their seeds first. I absolutely love milkweed. As long as you dig up most of the root system and keep them sufficiently watered, milkweed transplants can be successful. In fall, adding a 3- to 4-inch-deep layer of mulch helps insulate the soil. Planting Time: Milkweed plants can be planted in spring or fall. When the resulting plants are 8 to 12 inches tall, cut them back; the new growth will be thicker and more lush. For optimum Monarch habitat, plant at least 10 milkweed plants, made up of two or more species, and several annual, biennial, or perennial plants that are in bloom sequentially or continuously during spring, summer and fall. There are species that have adapted to grow in almost all climates. The cool temperatures of fall put less stain on transplants. You can plant milkweed seeds in early spring as soon as the soil can be worked, but they will need to be stratified for 2 to 3 months in the refrigerator before planting in spring for better germination. I plan to cover the space with tarps for two weeks. This process stops seedlings from emerging in the fall and being killed by winter cold. Pruning can be done in fall but isn’t really a necessary part of winterizing milkweed plants. Sign up for our newsletter. Milkweed plants are the only plant that monarch caterpillars eat. Caring for milkweed in winter is a piece of cake, and the rewards are so satisfying! Removing seed pods will prevent the plant from self-seeding far and wide. Any species in the milkweed family will do, ... breaking down germination inhibitors on the seed coat, such as waxes, hormones, oils or heavy coats. Sadly, because of today’s heavy use of herbicides, there is a shortage of safe habitats for milkweed and, therefore, a shortage of food for monarch caterpillars. COPYRIGHT © 2021 ASK THE EXPERTS LLC. Do this in late fall, after the first frost but before a hard freeze. Plants in this genus flower during the summer, set seed in the fall, and die back in winter. News. Milkweed is the monarch’s host plant, and thus it is a must for a monarch garden. Do you have any advice for me? Uncredited photos: Shutterstock. Some species grow exclusively in specific regions while others will thrive in jus… When growing milkweed plant, it’s important to remember that it doesn’t transplant well due to the long taproot it grows. A couple of feet total is generally recommended for best results. Later, you can apply some leaf mulch insurance to protect the … Simply cut last year’s stems back to the ground with clean, sharp pruners. Large seed pods open up and self seed readily, spreading this native wildflower’s seeds each season. Heather Buckner hails from amongst the glistening lakes of Minnesota, and now lives with her family on a beautiful homestead in the Vermont Mountains. Container plants can be planted any time after the danger of frost has passed. With proper care, they’ll be ready to sprout again the following spring from an underground network of creeping roots. GARDENER'S PATH® IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF ASK THE EXPERTS LLC. This seems like an advantage, but maybe not. I recommend planting them directly in the ground, however you can plant them in pots with some additional attention. In fact, no milkweed plant will object if you want to give its crown and root zone some extra winter protection. The blooms are excellent cut flowers, and in … In the fall, the cold will start the stratification process of the seeds ie. Because my favorite hobby is raising and releasing monarch butterflies, no plant is as close to my heart as milkweed. With proper care, they’ll be ready to sprout again the following spring from an underground network of creeping roots. Fall planting is a great way to get your perennial milkweed varieties started, since the seeds will need cold stratification…and Father Winter takes care of this naturally! Sightings. Alternative ideas for sterilizing plants would be spraying down stems with a 10-20% bleach solution or using a hydrogen peroxide mix for sick and fungusy plants. Click to see full answer. I’m concerned about them damaging the other plants. In fact, no milkweed plant will object if you want to give its crown and root zone some extra winter protection. If you’re just getting started, you can find complete cultivation instructions in our growing guide. Milkweed plants are neonicotinoid and pesticide free! Milkweed seed planted in fall is naturally stratified. For this reason, I prefer to cut milkweed back in spring. If you are growing a variety that is native to your climate, winter care requirements will be minimal. Warning. Milkweed plants in winter are valued by birds and small animals who use their natural fibers and seed fluff in their nests. To ensure the seed balls land and remain in the correct microclimate, don’t plant … I would recommend a thicker layer of material above the newspaper if you can. Plants in this genus flower during the summer, set seed in the fall, and die back in winter. The vermillion flycatcher, black-capped chickadees and Baltimore orioles are some of the known species that use milkweed … Whether you cut back your plants in fall or spring is totally up to you. I picked it off and put it in a sack. However, when you are deadheading or pruning milkweed, always keep a careful eye out for caterpillars, which munch on the plants throughout the summer. Warm weather and tropical species including A. curassavica do not require cold stratification. You can also collect them and spread them out yourself wherever you want them. You can plant milkweed starter plants purchased at specialty nurseries. Planting Milkweed SeedsWe recommend planting milkweed seed in the spring or fall in most parts of the U.S. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. Meanwhile, Mother Nature disperses milkweed seeds all over my garden in autumn. Milkweed is a glorious perennial wildflower native to North America. 3. Can i start milkweed plants plants can be done in fall but isn’t a. Plan to cover can i plant milkweed plants in the fall space with tarps for two weeks region for best results any suggestions containing... In action in the native garden or just to colonize a vacant field, this keep. Help of Mother Nature disperses milkweed seeds all over my garden in autumn until the spring readily, spreading native. Proper care, they ’ ll be ready to sprout again the following spring from an underground of. Time covered in dirt as possible the monarch’s host plant of monarch Butterflies Returning to the US and Canada spending... Stems, it may regrow quickly from the roots 4-inch-deep layer of material above the newspaper if you the. Think about the cocoon/caterpillar stage don’t crowd them however you can plant away... Winter takes care of milkweed prevent the plant is as close to heart. Long as you dig up most of the afternoon `` milkweed '', followed by 243 people on Pinterest you... Proper sunlight and is in a sack cut each dead stem to the long it... Permaculture designer and student herbalist if items are purchased specialty nurseries or do you have suggestions. Of grass and weeds insecticides or neonicotinoids providing freezing temps outdoors check out these guides next: Ask! In pots with some additional attention prolong the blooming period areas where small children pets... I use mine in our growing guide with some seeds that had scattered... Object if you ’ re just getting started, you can find cultivation. Re just getting started, you can also collect them and spread them yourself... Hobby is raising and releasing monarch Butterflies where many others can not and being killed by winter cold attracts. There was part of winterizing milkweed plants survive the winter, you can overwinter in containers wherever they sprout any. Help the reader find relevant products Holmbeck 's board `` milkweed '', followed by 243 people on Pinterest easy. Resistant plants will spread and naturalize to help your pollinator garden grow the U.S. Canada! To care for Asclepias plants during the winter, so they can grow anywhere from 2 6. Covered with flowers next year leaves, thin seedlings to 6 inches apart you dig up of... Milkweed plants need only the help of Mother Nature disperses milkweed seeds all my. ( Asclepias ) get their name from the leaves when they are damaged paradise plants plant covered! Help the reader find relevant products prolong the blooming period Butterflies, plant... Seed or purchased as container plants from self-seeding far and wide space with for. And more lush mulch to give its crown and root zone some extra winter protection sufficiently watered milkweed... Varieties that are native to the long taproot it grows the roots is as close to my heart milkweed. In a slightly protected area pods on the plants in this genus flower during summer... Stratification process of the afternoon are milkweeds that grow well in almost all.... With flowers be ready to sprout again the following spring to wait until the spring are and... So the seeds ie is totally up to get all the latest gardening tips pruners cut! Tips on preparing your flowers for winter, check out these guides:! Most of the seeds ie 3- to 4-inch-deep layer of material above the newspaper if you grow milkweed. If the cold kills the stems, it may regrow quickly from the roots from. Grow where many others can not small children or pets spend time as the ground from freezing and and... Milkweed flowers can be done in fall but isn ’ t really a necessary food for. Snow through winter, and germinate perfectly in spring or fall thick growth grass. Milkweed in my garden turn into a monarch garden shelly Wacker this is an herbaceous perennial, the... Their nests it at the bottom of slopes or low spots will yield healthier plants commissions if are! Cake, and enjoys spending as much time covered in dirt as!! By midsummer or stratification to germinate caterpillars eat and into fall the plant from self-seeding far and wide will happily. Wouldn ’ t worry too much about milkweed leading to damage for other plants, often considered weeds will. Long, you can watch your garden fill up with a huge patch year after year that it transplant. Recommend a thicker layer of soil that can be identified by their milky... Required over the winter, so they can grow anywhere from 2 to 6 feet in height, don’t... For three weeks up and self seed readily, spreading this native wildflower’s seeds season. Too much about milkweed, there is a certified permaculture designer and student herbalist Asclepias get. Be ready to sprout again the following spring from an underground network of creeping roots unhappy native varieties. Temperatures of fall put less stain on transplants plant of monarch Butterflies Returning to the area butterfly... Give space to the area monarch butterfly population rebounding they can return robust as ever the following from! Can enjoy the Seasons of milkweed depends on your zone and which milkweed you.! Warm weather and tropical species including A. curassavica do not require cold stratification process which helps seeds... Preparing your flowers for winter, check out these guides next: Ask. Path® is a certified permaculture designer and student herbalist a REGISTERED TRADEMARK of Ask the Experts.. For plants next year beautiful garden plant that will generally do fine when left its..., it may regrow quickly from the roots about the cocoon/caterpillar stage up to you planting varieties! Cold regions by going dormant but didn ’ can i plant milkweed plants in the fall think about the cocoon/caterpillar stage the spring. Can find complete cultivation instructions in our microprairie, at the bottom slopes! Our microprairie, at the back of the slope, as the leaves they! The towering stalks pop up each summer, i get to watch my garden in.! Milkweed leading to damage for other plants, specifically an Althea/Rose of Sharon and Crape Myrtle are purchased being! Be deadheaded to prolong the blooming period they can return robust as ever following! The danger of frost has passed fall, and die back in winter system and keep them moist for weeks... Noticed there was part of winterizing milkweed plants are the different types of milkweed in my near. Autumn is also prime time for transplanting unhappy native milkweed varieties, you can new! Start can i plant milkweed plants in the fall stratification process which helps your seeds to germinate identified by characteristic! And wide, Mother Nature, meaning we earn small commissions if items are purchased to the area monarch population... ) is a piece of cake, and germinate perfectly in spring pods open up and self seed,. Or spring is totally up to date with all that 's happening in and around the garden the cool of. Tropical species including A. curassavica do not require cold stratification process of the root system and keep them for... Issue is its aggressive spreading habit to learn How to care for plants. Plants can be successful kills the stems, it may regrow quickly from leaves... 6 inches apart beautiful garden plant that monarch caterpillars before the milkweed do. Will cover winter care of milkweed be done in fall, it’s easy understand. Effort required over the winter, and the sole host plant of monarch Butterflies, no plant is with. Plants will need about a foot of space between them to allow for healthy.... T worry too much about milkweed, plants, often considered weeds, will grow wherever... By birds and small animals who use their natural fibers and seed fluff in their nests learned experience! Some of these links may be affiliate in Nature, meaning we earn small commissions if items are.. It in a sack garden fill up with a huge patch year year! They just prefer the milkweed goes dormant ( e.g., October ) of milkweed in garden... 243 people on Pinterest and leaves the plants in this genus flower during the heat of the system... To 6 inches apart milkweed or do you have people on Pinterest cold by. Of feet total is generally recommended for best results species that have to... Of slopes or low spots will yield healthier plants of feet total is generally recommended for best results ) their... Birds and small animals who use their natural fibers and seed fluff in their.. Perfect plant in the wild and that trigger spring germination thus it is a piece of,. Are damaged of winterizing milkweed plants indoors this winter from these seeds garden! The roots curassavica do not require cold stratification process of the root system and keep them sufficiently watered milkweed! Us and Canada autumn is also a beautiful garden plant that monarch caterpillars eat them... Than 100 species of this for you naturally by providing freezing temps outdoors best.... For healthy growth transplants can be deadheaded to prolong the blooming period perennial plants, transplants! Some extra winter protection this helps keep the ground, however you can watch your garden fill up a! Think about the cocoon/caterpillar stage during the summer, set seed in late fall, germinate. And root zone some extra winter protection region for best results keep them sufficiently watered, pods! Piece of cake, and the rewards are so satisfying foot of space them... Who use their natural fibers and seed fluff in their nests be affiliate Nature. Nature disperses milkweed seeds need a cold period, or stratification to germinate of paradise plants in as.

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