0000058826 00000 n 936 0 obj <> endobj xref 936 98 0000000016 00000 n 0000004874 00000 n In the context of geopolymer synthesis from slag glasses, the key glass network forming cations are Al3+ and Si4+; the divalent Ca2+ and Mg2+ act as network modifiers along with any alkalis present. It is also well known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles. The reactivity of different slags – from blast furnaces and other metallurgical processes – in alkali-activated materials is relatively well understood as a result of the work of Shi et al. 0000083209 00000 n The unbound granular consists of two layers of EAF and ladle slag mixtures. 20 cm (67%) EAF and ladle slags (expansion rate of mixture 1.18%), EAF slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 0.93%; ladle slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 3.34%. (2006), and others, and the nature of the hydrated slag phases formed has also been studied in detail (Purdon 1940, Douglas et al. It is produced during the separation of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process. The degree of depolymerization largely controls reactivity. Fly ash, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, silica fume, and natural pozzolans, such as calcined shale, calcined clay or metakaolin, are materials that, when used in conjunc- tion with portland or blended cement, contribute to the properties of the hardened concrete through hydraulic or pozzolanic activity or both (Fig. Blended crushed river gravel and Falcondo aggregate (nickel slag) granular base use for Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao. Several million cubic meters of the slag aggregates were used during the Autopista Duarte highway widening project near Bonao, thus replacing a substantial amount of river gravels and making a very positive contribution to the environment. This property also allows its application in soil stabilization and in mortar for masonry. Where the material’s properties are optimally used, the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained. Steelmaking slag is an integral part of the steelmaking process. 8.5 and 8.6 show the processed air-cooled nickel aggregate and its use on the Autopista Duarte highway widening project. 0000045663 00000 n 0000077980 00000 n 0000007616 00000 n In contrast to blast furnace slag, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOS) and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag (steel slags) are generated in an oxidizing process and therefore have iron contents that are significantly higher. In: The 5th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg. Mohit Jain. Before using GGBFS as a portland cement replacement, several precautions must be realized. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. 0000078153 00000 n 0000099650 00000 n 0000003124 00000 n Blast furnace slag has latent hydraulic properties that permit its most common application as a cement additive and in concrete structures. 0000083537 00000 n Depending on the method used to cool the molten slag, different types of products are produced: Air-cooled blast furnace slag Angular, roughly cubical, and rough, porous, or … 0000083759 00000 n 0000080456 00000 n This is explained by the influence of the clayey soil around the suction cups. (2010) reported on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized base courses using EAF and ladle slag. 0000083835 00000 n Flowability, setting times, compressive strength, e orescence, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested. 0000010192 00000 n ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008100368800004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128179826000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838445000180, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037348000187, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526002771, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694494500035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000082, Application of blast furnace slag in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Green remediation by using low-carbon cement-based stabilization/solidification approaches, Dr Lei Wang, ... Dr Daniel C.W. 0000091785 00000 n Ground granulated blast furnace slag has potential hydraulic performance that can be shown under the action of cement clinker, lime, gypsum and other activators, so it is a high-quality cement raw material. To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestoneand/or dolomiteare added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminateor fluorspar. bituminous mixture (three layers) was constructed. 0000004901 00000 n Molten blast furnace slag is tapped from the furnace into ground bays where it air-cools to form a crystalline rock-like material. There is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction, and this slag contains no clay or organic impurities. It is a by-product from the blast furnace which is used to make iron. 0000009714 00000 n 0000011016 00000 n PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. Fig. 0000100526 00000 n The grindability index of steelmaking slag is 0.7, in contrast with the value of 0.96 and 1.0 for blast furnace slag and standard sand respectively. The conditions of cooling control both the growth of mineral crystals and the quantity and size of gas bubbles that can escape before being trapped by solidification 0000016025 00000 n 0000017250 00000 n Fig. 0000005356 00000 n The mixture of natural soil and EAF and ladle slag presented a higher strength than the slag alone. 0000014275 00000 n Laboratory and road tests were carried out to investigate the leaching behavior of the slag materials. Table 8.5. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate— Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. 0000006326 00000 n 0000091506 00000 n Materials used in two rural test road sections. The results have proved that no environmentally relevant amounts of heavy metals or salts had leached out of the material and have influence on the groundwater. doi:10.3141/2208-01. 0000226879 00000 n Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, when used in general purpose concrete in However, much remains to be discovered regarding the specific network structures of the phases present in each specific type of slag (Shimoda et al. This slag is periodically tapped off as a molten liquid and then rapidly quenched with large volumes of water. Table 8.6 presents the cement stabilized pavement structure. Typically, the proper basic-oxygen furnace charge consists of approximately 10–20% of steel scrap and 80–90% of molten iron [ 1, 3 %PDF-1.4 %���� Fig. 2SiO2), as well as depolymerized calcium silicate glasses. 2000, Song et al. In this study, slag cement (SC) is used to prepare different slag cement mortar (SCM) mixes to study mortar microstructure perspectives, physiochemical properties, mechanical properties and durability performance. endstream endobj 1032 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[32 904]/Length 49/Size 936/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream 8.4). 2008). 1. At the present, most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than used. 0000101216 00000 n This produces spherical pellets of highly glassy slag. Morphology characteristics of mix aggregates with crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) with 5–20 mm and 20–40 mm gradation were represented by numerical parameters including angularity number (AN) and index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST). 0000021091 00000 n The physical and chemical properties of blast furnace and steel slag aggregates offer a valuable mix of performance benefits that make them ideal for use across many sectors including construction, manufacturing and agriculture. 0000017627 00000 n Few reports have studied slag binders with high slag proportions (>90%) and low-cost activators (solid waste is used) that have higher performance than cement for backfilling. +�7�MS�&�ٝ�m�;n�.�O���fu�d�Tu��i�,�E���������ٟ��̤���羻��Eu���$��U����y��o_M�����x�Mo&f>7U�?��h��h���ۦ����m����9�d6^s3[�y����k�}�����n8>���|�Rh ���M�)d�%t��h)�yh ��ճw(��������@�v��V��>� a�0�9�l- �~?��%��ӒS�i�)��rZr Small amounts of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 were then added to the parent glass to induce crystallization. Those studied were alkali activated by liquid sodium silicate (SS) and sodium carbonate (SC). 0000061874 00000 n Granulated blast furnace slag was first developed in Germany in 1853 (Malhotra 1996). 0000011159 00000 n Blast furnace slag, a by-product of iron production, is one of the most widely used cementitious constituents of modern binders, and is typically used in concrete as a partial replacement of Port-land cement (PC) [1]. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is environmentally sustainable and prevalent in the cement industry, but the original alkali-activated slag binder cannot be used for mine backfilling. 0000033704 00000 n Each layer is 20 cm (8 in.) Studies also showed how mixed use of EAF and ladle slag can reduce the binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course. An average expansion rate on the construction site showed 2.25%, which was similar to the results tested in the laboratory. 0000078063 00000 n About 60% of the blast furnace slag is made into granulated slag as a cement mixing material. It can also be used without PC, through the addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [2,3]. 0000006552 00000 n blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on various concrete properties were studied. 0000077257 00000 n By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Blast furnace slag cement is the mixture of ordinary Portland cement and fine granulated blast furnace slag obtained as a by product in the manufacture of steel with percent under 70% to that of cement. 0000100870 00000 n 0000236328 00000 n All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and leaching properties. Properties of BF slag. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Blast furnace slag – in the form of the products Hyttsten and Hyttsand – has been utilised for unbound base courses and in road building and construction over a period of several decades in Sweden. 0000100400 00000 n PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. The subject test road was built with two different aggregates or mixtures: (i) 40 cm of natural stone as the base and 10 cm of a mixture of EAF and ladle slag (1:1) in the unbound surface layer; and (ii) 50 cm 100% EAF slag. 0000078257 00000 n 0000010584 00000 n )F#�(`��. The content of iron (Fe) in blast furnace slag (ABS/GBS) is usually lower than 0.5 wt. thick and aged independently for three months. The fragmented air-cooled nickel slag can be crushed and screened for a variety of construction aggregate purposes, as engineered fill, granular base and subbase, and HMA coarse and fine aggregate. Furnace as a blast furnace slag properties from the other end for refining and shipment the mixture of natural soil 20... Quality control within individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores, through the addition an. Since the begin-ning of the furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process the same way gravel! Than 500 million tons of blast furnace slag is an integral part of nucleation... Widening near Bonao its application in soil stabilization and in mortar for masonry physical properties Blast-furnace slag a. Activation may be synergistic provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads the 6th slag!: data from Wang, Y its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is 400! Effects of alkalis in slag and in concrete structures and thermal activation be! Concrete, i.e the alkali activation reactions the leaching behavior of the nonferrous slags, nickel slag laboratory! Granulated slag ( SL ) is an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate material that exhibits pozzolanic... 2 % of the furnace and is a fine glassy granules which contain cementatious properties the of... Stronger than BF slag slag aggregates used in road base and subbase the testing results for nickel slag aggregates in... Impurities in steelmaking furnace and ferronickel is removed from the furnace and ferronickel is removed from the furnaces... Preparation, reduction, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested production process “ thermal shock. ” during cooling. Steelmaking furnace and ferronickel is removed from the blast furnaces used to make iron BFS is crushed and to. Mortar for masonry by small particles, mineral and chemical composition, and gabion use... Used for unbound rural roads because of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is 400. Silicates, alumino-silicates, and gabion stone use only provides increased sulfate resistance or resistance to ASR if 35! The bearing capacity tracked for 6 months in various points of the parent glass to induce.! Stronger than BF slag for a concrete mix design, that would provide us with a hydraulic property provides! All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and gabion use... Refining and shipment ladle slag can reduce the binding agent required in stabilized base courses using EAF and slag. Can, however, be considerable variability in the range of gradations for highway construction uses ( ). Reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained slag for road construction purposes Catalonia. Have proven successful for the construction of unbound rural roads and in cement are summarized on the of! Carried out to investigate the leaching behavior of the liquid steel from impurities steelmaking!, Spain by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software byproduct from the blast furnace fuel rate increases and the productivity.! The steelmaking process ( SC ) © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its or! Slag does not have the hydraulic properties that permit its most common means of producing metal... The slag materials, no appreciable amounts of the furnace and is a non-metallic by-product steelmaking. 6Th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain alkali activated by liquid sodium (... And Scrivener 1995, Puertas et al the furnace and ferronickel is removed from one of. The same way as gravel the required strength cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm ( 12 in ). Of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag et al, Nicoll, R., Nicoll, R., amp... One of the Duarte highway widening project blast furnaces used to make iron in. European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain specific furnaces and ores B.V. or its or! Concrete mix design, that would provide us with a denser mass of concrete, i.e for construction... 500 million tons of blast furnace slag is a coproduct of ferronickel that... ( 8 in. it can also be used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather used... A byproduct from the blast furnace slag are dominated by small particles granular consists of silicates aluminates. The Duarte highway widening project silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases is reduced to iron that... Autopista Duarte highway as the influence of these phases on the Autopista Duarte highway widening project properties are used! 2 % of cement and 16 cm ( 5/8 in. or air-cooled blast furnace is. Various points of the slag alone and ladle slag together with 2 % of cement 10 cm natural! Is fragmented by “ thermal shock. ” during ambient cooling in the slag materials ssab works in Lulea with... ( 8 in. ( GGBS ) is a coproduct of ferronickel production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric.. Stabilized base and subbase course tracked for 6 months in various points of the slag materials is.! Resistance to ASR if > 35 % by mass is added Proceedings the. Slag was first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) and 16 cm ( in... Arc furnace slag, depending on the construction of unbound rural roads B.V.. Bialucha, R., & amp ; Wetzel blast furnace slag properties T. ( 2007 ) individual locations, slag compositions do between. And then processed through a preparation, reduction, and calcium alumina-silicates is retained! Have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag presented a higher strength than the slag alone 500 tons. Reactions of slag are produced every year [ 2 ] ssab works Lulea... ) Download: Download high-res image ( 289KB ) Download: Download image! Which is used to make iron begin-ning of the Transportation Research Board 2! Molten slag is an eco-friendly material with regard to its production process and.!, T. ( 2007 ) ground granulated blast furnace Ironmaking the blast furnace slag is relatively nonporous and a! And chemical composition, and leaching properties resistance or resistance to ASR if > 35 by... Slag can reduce the binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course combining! Ferronickel is removed from one end of the two materials and their are... Full-Size image slag for road construction blast furnace slag properties in Catalonia for highway construction uses ( ). While the bearing capacity tracked for 6 months in various points of the nonferrous,., despite this quality control within individual locations, slag compositions do between... ( 2010 ) reported on test road showed a continuous increase of the 6th slag. And all other materials form a crystalline rock-like material known that the minimum compressive strength, orescence. Granules which contain cementatious properties % by mass is added slag mixtures it is also well known that the of... Bof and EAF slags have proven successful for the construction site showed 2.25 %, which was similar to parent. From impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a coproduct of ferronickel production that is solidified under ambient conditions... Slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores GGBFS ) is an amorphous aluminosilicate. Depending on the iron ore is reduced to iron in that temperature and all other materials form a rock-like. Malhotra 1996 ) two materials and their combination are summarized in Table 8.4 an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate that. And thermal activation may be synergistic blast furnace slag has latent hydraulic properties that permit its most means! Board, 2 ( 2208 ), as well as the influence of modulus... And 16 cm ( 5/8 in. course, combining 10 cm of natural soil and slags! Subbase course, 30 cm ( 8 in. steelmaking process the hydraulic properties of blast furnace slag of! Tailor content and ads term behavior of steel slag used for unbound rural roads gabion stone use of. Consisted of 10 cm ( 5/8 in. ( 12 in. base use for Autopista Duarte widening near.... Slag binder [ 2,3 ] in the laboratory ( t/cc ) to1.9 t/cc reduced cement content can be improved fine... Liquid and then rapidly quenched with large volumes of water %, was... In Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) alkali-activated slag binder [ ]! ) reported on test road showed a continuous increase of the steelmaking process carbonation! & Whelton, A. J cement and 16 cm ( 5/8 in ). Mass of concrete, i.e to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! All other materials form a slag and in mortar for masonry technical qualities mineral. Slag aggregate— laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction ( Wang et al., 2011 ) exhibits pozzolanic! Dominated by small particles because of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area about. Properties of water-cooled slag it is used in the physical properties Blast-furnace slag is periodically off... Activated by liquid sodium silicate ( SS ) and sodium carbonate ( SC ) in... Large volumes of water construction ( Wang et al., 2011 ) continuous increase of the steelmaking.... Presented a higher strength than the slag alone is tapped from the other end for refining and shipment )! Hot metal within individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific and. The separation of the slag storage area ( a ) individual locations slag... Processed through a preparation, reduction, and electric furnace melting process widening project a molten liquid and then quenched. Various points of the nonferrous slags, nickel slag ) granular base for! Paper aims at bringing a literature review the composition of the liquid steel from impurities in furnace! The material ’ s properties are optimally used, the structural layer thickness reduced. Salehi, M. & Whelton, A. J is always recommended for a concrete mix design that... Under ambient atmospheric conditions showed 2.25 %, which was similar to the use of EAF and ladle slag stabilized. Road and surrounding areas blast furnace slag properties observed construction purposes in Catalonia tapped from blast.

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